Salivary amylase is a glucose-polymer cleavage enzyme that is produced by the salivary glands. It comprises a small portion of the total amylase excreted, which is mostly made by the pancreas. Amylases digest starch into smaller molecules, ultimately yielding maltose, which in turn is cleaved into two glucose molecules by maltase. Starch comprises a significant portion of the typical human diet for most nationalities. Given that salivary amylase is such a small portion of total amylase, it is unclear why it exists and whether it conveys an evolutionary advantage when ingesting starch.

This review will consider the impact of salivary amylase on oral perception, nutrient signaling, anticipatory metabolic reflexes, blood sugar, and its clinical implications for preventing metabolic syndrome and obesity.

Saliva has many crucial roles in promoting health, including protecting the oral cavity and facilitating eating.

Within the mouth, saliva hydrates mucosal tissues, removes cell and food debris, buffers oral pH, lubricates the oral cavity aiding mastication and preventing dental wear, forms food boli to assist swallowing, protects against teeth demineralization, has antimicrobial activity and prevents infections, and closes wounds while stimulating healing [ 12 ].

Saliva also plays essential roles in food perception and digestion. The exact mechanisms of digestion remain unclear. For taste, the physical and compositional characteristics of saliva facilitate perception. For example, the fact that saliva is an aqueous liquid makes it an ideal vehicle for carrying taste stimuli and nutrients to the taste receptors [ 3 ], which are widely distributed on the tongue, soft palate, and pharynx.

Unstimulated saliva also presents low levels of taste stimuli, such as salts and glucose, in comparison to plasma, which enables low detection threshold [ 14 ]. Taste perception guides dietary choices as well as influences physiological processes pre- and post-absorptively [ 56 ]. Additionally, saliva contains a large number of proteins involved in lipase, peptidase, and hydrolase activities.

When comparing the saliva and plasma proteomes, it is clear that the distributions of the salivary proteins are geared toward metabolic and catabolic processes. This indicates that saliva has a major physiologic role in food digestion [ 7 ]. Glucose will then be generated from maltose via the action of disaccharide enzymes, such as maltase.

In the human body, amylase is predominantly produced by the salivary glands and the pancreas. Although salivary and pancreatic amylases are similar, they are encoded by different genes AMY1 and AMY2respectively and show different levels of activity against starches of various origins [ 10 ]. The physiological significance of salivary amylase is still being uncovered and aspects of it are controversial, for example, its normative secretory function in plasma remains a mystery.

Salivary amylase has a relatively short active contact time with starch. Once a food bolus is swallowed and infiltrated with gastric juice, its catabolic activity is mostly stopped by low acidic pH.

salivary amylase experiment viva questions

Some activity remains within particles due to the barrier protection provided by partially digested starch on the outside of the particle [ 11 ], but the majority of the starch is digested by the abundant pancreatic amylase, which is released into the duodenal portion of the small intestine.

Nevertheless, studies have demonstrated that considerable starch hydrolysis occurs within seconds in the oral cavity, transforming the gelatinous texture of starch into a semiliquid [ 1213 ]. This change of texture might itself influence starch digestion, sensory preferences, and starch intake.Our aim is to study the effect of different temperatures and pH on the activity of salivary content, amylase on starch. All living beings need energy to survive. It is from the food we consume that we get our energy.

We know that the energy we are getting is by the process of digestion that breaks down the complex substance of starch into simpler molecules of glucose, which are further metabolized into CO 2 and water through the process of glycolysis. The human digestive tract starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. The digestion of the food starts as soon as we put food in our mouth. Our teeth cut the food into small pieces and the salivary glands secrete saliva that mixes with these food materials.

The saliva contains an enzyme called salivary amylase which hydrolyses starch into maltose. The complete digestion of starch occurs only in the small intestine by the action of pancreatic amylase.

The activity of enzymes is strongly affected by several factors, such as temperature and pH. All enzymes are proteinaceous in nature. At a lower temperature, the enzyme salivary amylase is deactivated and at the higher temperature, the enzyme is denaturated.

Therefore, more time will be taken by an enzyme to digest the starch at lower and higher temperatures. The optimum temperature means that the temperature at which the enzyme shows the maximum activity. At this optimum temperature, the enzyme is most active and hence, takes less time to digest the starch.

The optimum pH for the enzymatic activity of salivary amylase ranges from 6 to 7. Above and below this range, the reaction rate reduces as enzymes get denaturated. The enzyme salivary amylase is most active at pH 6. Our stomach has high level of acidity which causes the salivary amylase to denature and change its shape. So the salivary amylase does not function once it enters the stomach. The effect of temperature and pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch can be studied by using the Iodine test.

If we add saliva on starch, the salivary amylase present in saliva gradually acts on starch and converts it into maltose.

Starch keeps on giving blue colour with iodine till it is completely digested into maltose.These all are absolutely amazing. As already mentioned some experiments are missing,I would like to ask should we write principle as well? My teacher is asking to write principle also ,so what to do? I m waiting for your precious answers.

Thanks and regards Bhupender Singh. Wow amazing. Thankz a lot I am from kashmir and truely speaking i dont had did any expirement in botony but i got very help soo thanku again. Nice post, thanks for sharing this post regarding ambient temperature Preservative with us. In nutrient medium, the pollen grain germinates.

The tube cell enlarges and comes out of the pollen grain through one of the germ pores to form a pollen tube.

salivary amylase experiment viva questions

The tube enlarges and comes out of the pollen grain through one of the germ pores to form a pollen tube. The tube nucleus descends to the tip of the pollen tube. The generative cell also passes into it. It soon divides into two male gametes. Each male gamete is lenticular to spherical in outline. The soil samples were examined by a hand lens and it was felt between fingers in dry as well as in moist state. Dried soil samples are placed on meshes of different pore sizes amount of particles that pas through them were recorded.

About 50 gm of soil was taken from a sample in ml measuring cylinder. The soil particles were allowed to settle down. Thicknesses of the layers formed by different types of particles were recorded in the measuring cylinder, and their relative percentage was calculated. Similarly relative percentage of different types f soil particle present in different soil samples was recorded. Heavy particles settle down first and lighter ones afterwards.

Humus floats on the water surface. These layers were observed carefully and observations were recorded in tabular form. Soil samples. Relative percentage.

Soil class. Soil from a crop field.Post a Comment. Tuesday, 22 December Sample viva questions. XII Practicals Sample Viva questions.

GK Questions and Answers on Enzymes

How many pairs of salivary glands are found in human beings? What are enzymes? Give two most important characteristics of enzymes. Why are enzymes referred to as biocatalyst? Why is NaCl added in the starch solution while testing salivary amylase activity? What are the end products of salivary amylase activity? What is achromic point? Did all three sets of tubes reach achromic point while studying effect of pH and temperature?

If notwhy so? What do you mean by optimum temperature, pH, and denaturation of enzyme? Why is liquid soap added to the solution for extracting DNA out of cells?

Why is chilled ethanol added while separating DNA fibres from the solution?

salivary amylase experiment viva questions

Name the various types of soil. On what basis are various types of soils classified? Which component of soil is responsible for retention of water? Why is soil water important? Name the soil which can retain maximum and minimum amount of water.

Which type of soil is ideal for plant growth? How is the study of soil structure important for selecting crops to be grown? How is pH of soil important and how is humus important for soil? Why is mitosis termed as equational division and meiosis as reductional division?

What do you mean by term karyokinesis and cytokinesis? At what stage of cell division does nuclear membrane reappear? In which stage of cell division chromosomes are seen best? What are the main events occurring during different phases of mitosis and meiosis?

What are the advantages of working with pea plant in dihybrid and monohybrid cross? What are pedigree charts and how are they useful in genetical studies? What is colour blindness? Mention its genetical basis. What is haemophilia? What is parasite?If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center?

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Theory & Procedure, Action of Salivary Amylase on Starch NEET Notes | EduRev

Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. In an amylase experiment what is the substrate and the product?

Wiki User Since the substrate is the molecule on which the enzyme acts, amylase substrate is starch and the product is maltose. The Substrate for amylase are starch amylose and Amylopectinglycogen, and various Oligosaccharides and the subunit is maltose. Asked in Biology What is the subtrate and subunit product of amylase? The substrate is starch and the subunit is maltose.

Asked in Biology, Chemistry, Biochemistry In the amylase experiment is the starch the substrate and the iodine the enzyme? Amylase is the enzyme and starch is the substrate The Substrate for amylase are starch amylose and Amylopectinglycogen, and various Oligosaccharides. The substrate for pancreatic amylase is starch. It is an enzyme, secreted in the pancreas, that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch into sugars. Asked in Fan Fiction, Genetics Does amylase use cellulose as a substrate?

Asked in Biology, Chemistry Describe the substrate and subunit of amylase? Amylase is an enzyme which acts on starch. It breaks down starch. Asked in Biology, Earth Sciences What substance is a substrate of amylase? Asked in Lady Gaga What is the name of the substrate of amylase? Once you think about it hard, you will know. Sincerly, Abeid :. Asked in Genetics What is the substrate of salivary amylase? Starch is the substrate. Salivary amylase like all amylases is an enzyme that breaks down bonds between glucose residues in starch molecules.

The products are sugars such as maltose and, in smaller amounts, glucose and maltotriose. Asked in Biology What is the product of substrate? It is organ, glands enzymessubstrate and the final product. Amylase breaks starch a polysaccharide - complex carbohydrate down into maltose a disaccharide - simpler sugar.

Asked in Biology What happens to bonds during the enzyme substrate complex? Depends on which enzyme and which substrate, but it goes like this with any of them.Jump to navigation. Biology that deals with the study of the living world and living organisms wouldn't be complete without practical classes. Whether you want to become a doctor or biotechnologist or simple ace your exams, remember to prepare for your Biology practical exams in addition to your preparation for Biology theory exams.

Here are some tips! List of Experiments 1. Study pollen germination on a slide. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity of soil.

Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organisms.

Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at two widely different sites. Study of plant population density by quadrat method.

Amylase on Starch Lab

Study of plant population frequency by quadrat method. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis. Study the effect of different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies wind, insect.


Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide. Identification of stages of gamete development i. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.

Study prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow's peak and colour blindness. Exercise on controlled pollination - emasculation, tagging and bagging. Identification of common disease causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, ringworm through permanent slides or specimens.

Comment on symptoms of disease that they cause. Two plants and two animals found in xeric conditions. Comment upon the morphological adaptations. Plants and animals are found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.

Tips - Study the Biology theory that will form the basis of your experiments thoroughly - The key to scoring high marks during a Biology practical exam is diagrams.

Although the Biology practical exam may seem easy, it's important to devote some time to prepare, to help you score high in the overall Biology subject; theory and practical combined.

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salivary amylase experiment viva questions

Do You Like This Story?Amylase is an enzyme responsible for converting starches into the sugar maltose, which is a disaccharide. This enzyme, present in saliva, is a key component in germinating plants. The starches contained within the seed are converted to sugars, providing energy to the plant before photosynthesis begins. Experiments with amylase demonstrate how the enzyme reacts with starches and variables, which affect the rate of the reaction. Bread is full of carbohydrates.

Starches are considered a type of complex carbohydrate, which begins to be broken down into maltose as soon as it's in our mouths. Give each student a slice of bread that has been cut in two.

The students chew one half of the bread for three minutes and write down their observations as to the changes in how the bread tastes. The other half of the bread is chewed for 10 seconds, then placed in a safe container for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes are up, the students chew the bread again. In both cases, the bread should begin to get sweeter as the amylase begins to convert the carbohydrates into maltose, which tastes sweet. Give the students three corn seeds -- one dry, another that has been boiled, and one that has been soaked in water.

The students cut the seeds in half and place the seeds on an agar petri dish that has a starch solution. The students then incubate the seeds for 30 minutes. After removal, they add an iodine solution over the plates.

Starches remaining on the plate react with the iodine, creating purple areas. Students observe the differences between the seeds to determine which type of seed had more active amounts of amylase present. As with all enzymes, amylase has a preferred pH level in which it operates.

This can be determined by creating different pH levels and amylase reactions that measure the speed of the reaction. Place iodine solution drops in a test tube.

In test tubes mix amylase, starch and a buffer solution with different pH levels. After mixing the solution, remove a small amount using a pipette and add it to the iodine. The iodine must turn orange when the reaction is complete. The students test the solution every 10 seconds until they arrive at the correct color.

The experiment is repeated at each pH level. The pH level that turned orange the fastest is the preferred pH of amylase.

Amylase reactions happen more rapidly at certain temperatures. Place iodine solution in a tray. Mix the amylase, starch and buffer, use the same pH this time, and test how long it takes to turn orange. Raise the temperature of the solution by 10 degrees for the next solution and retest the time it takes for the reaction to test.

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